EXPULSADOS DE LA RTNC

He cruzado la frontera entre la República de Chipre (grecochipriota) y la autoproclamada República Turca del Norte de Chipre (RTNC)(turcochipriota) varias ocasiones. En una de ellas, el 14 de octubre de 2003 un grupo de 14 periodistas fuimos expulsados cuando manteníamos una reunión en el periódico Kibris.

Aquí se pueden leer las informaciones que sobre aquella expulsión publicaron ABC y EL MUNDO, así como un informe del Ministerio de Exteriores sobre Chipre en el que se dan datos históricos sobre los acontecimientos en la isla.
HISTORIOGRAMA SEGÚN LA BBC

1914 - Cyprus annexed by Britain, after more than 300 years of Ottoman rule. Britain had occupied the island in 1878, although it remained nominally under Ottoman sovereignty.

1925 - Becomes crown colony.

1955 - Greek Cypriots begin guerrilla war against British rule. The guerrilla movement, the National Organisation of Cypriot Combatants (EOKA), wants enosis (unification) with Greece. British authorities arm a paramilitary police force made up of Turkish Cypriots.

1956 - Archbishop Makarios, head of enosis campaign, deported to the Seychelles.

1959 - Archbishop Makarios returns and is elected president.
Independence

1960 - Cyprus gains independence after Greek and Turkish communities reach agreement on a constitution. Treaty of Guarantee gives Britain, Greece and Turkey the right to intervene. Britain retains sovereignty over two military bases.

1963 - Makarios raises Turkish fears by proposing constitutional changes which would abrogate power-sharing arrangements. Inter-communal violence erupts. Turkish side withdraws from power-sharing.

1964 - United Nations peacekeeping force set up. Turkish Cypriots withdraw into defended enclaves.
Refugees in Cyprus Cypriots flee fighting between the island's Greek and Turkish communities in 1974. Cyprus has been divided ever since

1974 - Military junta in Greece backs coup against Makarios, who escapes. Within days Turkish troops land in north. Greek Cypriots flee their homes.

Coup collapses. Turkish forces occupy third of the island, enforce partition between north and south roughly along the "Green Line" ceasefire line drawn up by UN forces in 1963. About 165,000 Greek Cypriots flee or are driven from the Turkish-occupied north, and about 45,000 Turkish Cypriots leave the south for the north.

The UN Security Council unanimously passes a resolution calling on Turkey to withdraw its troops from Cyrpus. Turkey refuses to do so, despite repeated UN Security Council resolutions making the same demand over the following decades.

Glafcos Clerides, president of the House of Representatives, becomes president until Makarios returns in December.

1975 - Turkish Cypriots establish independent administration, with Rauf Denktash as president. Denktash and Clerides agree population exchange.

1977 - Makarios dies. Succeeded by Spyros Kyprianou.

1980 - UN-sponsored peace talks resume.

1983 - Denktash suspends talks and proclaims Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC). It is recognised only by Turkey.
Archbishop Makarios Archbishop Makarios led 1950s struggle for union with Greece

1985 - No agreement at talks between Denktash and Kyprianou.

1988 - Georgios Vassiliou elected Greek Cypriot president.

1989 - Vassiliou-Denktash talks abandoned.

1992 - Talks resume and collapse again.

1993 - Glafcos Clerides replaces Vassiliou as president.

1994 - European Court of Justice rules that a list of goods, including fruit and vegetables, are not eligible for preferential treatment when exported by the Turkish Cypriot community directly to the EU.

1996 - Increased tension, violence along buffer zone in which two Greek Cypriot men were killed.

1997 - Failure of UN-mediated peace talks between Clerides and Denktash.

1998 - Clerides re-elected to a second term by narrow margin.

EU lists Cyprus as potential member.

Clerides' government threatens to install Russian-made anti-aircraft missiles. Turkey threatens military action. Clerides decides not to deploy the missiles.

2001 June - UN Security Council renews its 36-year mission. Some 2,400 peacekeepers patrol the buffer zone between Greek and Turkish Cypriots.

2001 July - Dozens of police officers are injured as protesters attack a British military base at Akrotiri over plans to build telecommunications masts alleged to pose a health hazard.

2001 November - Turkey threatens to annex the north if the Republic of Cyprus joins the EU. It says the move, coming before any reunification settlement, would violate the 1960 treaty.

2002 January - Clerides and Denktash begin UN-sponsored negotiations. Minds are concentrated by EU membership aspirations.

2002 November - UN Secretary General Kofi Annan presents a comprehensive peace plan for Cyprus which envisages a federation with two constituent parts, presided over by a rotating presidency.

2002 December - EU summit in Copenhagen invites Cyprus to join in 2004 provided the two communities agree to UN plan by early spring 2003. Without reunification, only the internationally recognised Greek Cypriot part of the island will gain membership.

2003 February - Tassos Papadopoulos defeats Clerides in presidential elections.

2003 March - UN deadline for agreement on reunification plan passes. Secretary-General Kofi Annan acknowledges that the plan has failed.

2003 April - Turkish and Greek Cypriots cross island's dividing "green line" for first time in 30 years after Turkish Cypriot authorities ease border restrictions.

2004 April - Twin referendums on whether to accept UN reunification plan in last-minute bid to achieve united EU entry. Plan is endorsed by Turkish Cypriots but overwhelmingly rejected by Greek Cypriots.
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Rauf Denktash
Turkish-Cypriot leader Rauf Denktash

Turkish Cypriot leader stood down after decades in politics
EU accession

2004 May - Cyprus is one of 10 new states to join the EU, but does so as a divided island.

2004 December - Turkey agrees to extend its EU customs union agreement to 10 new member states, including Cyprus. The Turkish prime minister says this does not amount to a formal recognition of Cyprus.

2005 April - Mehmet Ali Talat elected Turkish Cypriot president.

2005 May - Greek Cypriot and UN officials begin exploratory talks on prospects for new diplomatic peace effort.

2005 August - Cypriot airliner crashes near Athens, Greece, killing all 121 passengers and crew. It is the island's worst peacetime disaster.

2006 May - Greek Cypriots back ruling coalition in parliamentary elections, endorsing its opposition to reunification efforts.

2006 July - UN-sponsored talks between President Papadopolous and Turkish Cypriot leader Mehmet Ali Talat agree a series of confidence-building measures and contacts between the two communities.

2006 November - EU-Turkey talks on Cyprus break down over Turkey's continued refusal to open its ports to traffic from the Republic of Cyprus. Turkey says the EU should end the isolation of the Turkish Cypriot community before Turkey opens its ports.
Kyrenia harbour in Cyprus The historic harbour town of Kyrenia in Turkish-controlled Cyprus

2007 January-March - Greek and Turkish Cypriots demolish barriers dividing the old city of Nicosia. The moves are seen as paving the way for another official crossing point on what used to be a key commercial thoroughfare.

2008 January - Cyprus adopts the euro.
New talks

2008 February - Left-wing leader Demetris Christofias wins presidential elections. Promises to work towards reunification.

2008 March - President Christofias and Turkish Cypriot leader Mehmet Ali Talat agree to start formal talks on reunification.

2008 April - Symbolic Ledra Street crossing between the Turkish and Greek sectors of Nicosia reopened for first time since 1964.

2008 September - Greek and Turkish Cypriot leaders launch intensive negotiations aimed at ending the division of the island.

2009 April - Right-wing nationalist National Unity Party wins parliamentary elections in northern Cyprus, hampering peace talks. Turkish Cypriot leader Mehmet Ali Talat remains in office, but in a weakened position. Reunification talks continue through 2009, with little progress.

2010 January - President Christofias and Turkish Cypriot leader Mehmet Ali Talat resume talks on reunification in downbeat mood, no progress made.

2010 April - Dervis Eroglu, who favours independence, wins the Turkish north's leadership contest, beating pro-unity incumbent Mehmet Ali Talat.

2010 May - Re-unification talks resume with a new hardliner representing the Turkish north.

2011 May - Parliamentary polls. The the main rightwing opposition party DISY wins by a narrow margin.
Turkish troops on Cyprus Turkish troops parade during celebrations of the 24th anniversary of the declaration of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC)

2011 July - Navy chief Andreas Ioannides and 12 others die when people when impounded Iranian containers of explosives blow up at the main naval base and the country's main power plant. The defence minister, military chief and foreign minister resign over the incident, which officials say occurred after a bush fire ignited the explosives.

Credit rating agency Moody's cuts Cyprus's rating by two notches from A2 to BAA1, increasing risk of Cyprus requiring an EU bailout. Power shortages caused by the naval base blast knocking out the country's main power station, plus significant Greek debt, make financial reform difficult. Fitch cut Cyprus's rating to A- from AA- in May over Greek debt fears.

2011 August - President Christofias appoints a new cabinet with economist Kikis Kazamias from his AKEL party as finance minister. The previous cabinet resigned after the power shortages prompted the departure from the coalition government of the centre-right party DIKO.

2011 September - Cyprus begins exploratory drilling for oil and gas, prompting a diplomatic row with Turkey, which responds by sending an oil vessel to waters off northern Cyprus.

2011 October - President Christofias rejects the findings of an official report accusing him of "personal responsibility" for the July naval base blast on the grounds that he had been allegedly aware of the risk.

2012 April - The UN cancels plans for a Cyprus conference, citing lack of progress on any of the substantial differences between the two sides.

Turkey's Turkish Petroleum Corporation begins drilling for oil and gas onshore in northern Cyprus despite protests from the Cypriot government that the action is illegal.
Financial crisis

2012 June - Cyprus appeals to European Union for financial assistance to shore up its banks, which are heavily exposed to the stumbling Greek economy.

2012 November - Cyprus says it has reached an "in-principle agreement" with the European Commission, the European Central Bank and the IMF on the terms of a bailout deal. The actual size of the bailout is to be determined following an investigation into the country's ailing banks.

2013 February - Democratic Rally conservative candidate Nicos Anastasiades beats AKEL Communist party candidate Stavros Malas by a large margin in the presidential election run-off and succeeds Demetris Christofias as president.

2013 March - President Anastasiades secures 10bn-euro bank bailout from the European Union and IMF. Laiki Bank, the country's second-biggest, is wound down and deposit-holders with more than 100,000 euros will face big losses. Smaller deposits guaranteed following parliamentary rejection of an earlier deal.

Court jails Lebanese Hezbollah member for three years for plotting to attack Israelis on the island. He was arrested days before a bomb exploded on a bus carrying Israeli tourists in Bulgaria, killing six people. Israel and Bulgaria blamed Hezbollah for the bus blast. The Lebanese armed group has denied the accusations.

2013 April - Finance Minister Michael Sarris resigns, citing an official investigation into the mishandling of the bailout. Until 2012 he was head of the country's second-largest bank, Laiki, the performance of which was a major factor in the near collapse of the banking system.

2013 May - Cyprus receives 2bn euros - the first instalment of a 10bn-euro bailout package - from international creditors.
CHIPRE, LOS DOS HOGARES DE AFRODITA

Afrodita, la diosa del amor, surgió de la espuma marina en las costas de Chipre y allí creó su hogar. Un único hogar. Su patria fue la envidia de Fenicios, Griegos, Romanos, Venecianos y Turcos, que la ocuparon y poblaron sucesivamente. Los británicos la utilizaron como bastión para guardar el canal de Suez. Poco después, con la invasión turca provocada por las ansias territoriales griegas de la dictadura de los coroneles, aquel único hogar de la diosa se quebró y Afrodita habitó en dos lares.
FOTOS DE CHIPRE
  Reportajes para TVE (En Portada)
                  


  • Imagen de la capital de la RTNC  tomada desde Nicosia. La línea verde en primer plano. Nos tuvimos que agachar para tomar la foto ante el peligro de ser tiroteados
  • Este paso, ahora abierto, era el principal paso entre la República de Chipre y la RTNC. Solo se podía atravesar en el día y era obligatorio volver antes de la caida del sol. Al fondo, estamos solicitando el permiso para cruzar.
  • Al pasar a la RTNC en febrero de 2003,  nos encontramos con esta manifestación a favor de la reunificación de la isla.
  • «La paz en chipre no se podrá evitar», reza la pancarta que portaban unos turcochipriotas a favor del acuerdo de paz propuesto por la ONU en 2003
  • Asistimos a un baile que celebran frecuentemente las dos comunidades (turca y chipriota) que viven en Pila, el único pueblo en Chipre donde viven en paz.
  • Bellísimo moNasterio en el Monte Tröodos fundado en el siglo XI. Aquíi empezó su carrera el que fuera presidente del Chipre unido el rzobispo Macarios.
Tras una guerra cruenta, Chipre sigue hoy dividida por un muro, una línea -llamada verde- que separa dos mundos. El turcochipriota ocupando un tercio en el norte y el grecochipriota en el resto de la isla.

Obtenida la independencia de la corona británica, los chipriotas abrieron con la llave de su nueva libertad la caja de Pandora. Grecochipriotas y turcochipriotas que habían vivido durante siglos en paz, no se entendieron entre sí y la nueva constitución nunca funcionó. La enosis o unión de Chipre con Grecia, la madre patria de los grecochipriotas, provocó los primeros roces sangrientos entre ambas comunidades.

El Golpe de los Coroneles en Grecia y la caída del régimen chipriota del Arzobispo Makarios provocó la invasión de Turquía que ocupó el tercio norte de la isla, una división que aún hoy se mantiene. La llamada «Línea verde» pintada con un lápiz de ese color por un oficial británico, separa desde entonces a las dos comunidades que aún hoy se mantienen enfrentadas.

La ONU presentó en noviembre de 2002 un Plan de paz para tratar solucionar el conflicto. Para tratar de analizarlo y  mostrar las posturas de ambas comunidades, En Portada visitó la República de Chipre o parte sur reconocida internacionalmente, y la autoproclamada República Turca del Norte de Chipre, sólo reconocida por Turquía. Por primera vez, un equipo de televisión fue autorizado a cruzar la «Línea verde»  y permanecer en el norte más de un día.

El programa mostró la forma de vida de ambas comunidades, sus deseos, aspiraciones y su posición ante el plan de Naciones Unidas. Entrevistó a sus principales líderes, a los jóvenes universitarios ansiosos por lograr un acuerdo y visitó Pyla, el único pueblo situado en la zona de nadie, el único donde viven en paz ambas comunidades, los griegos y los turcos de Chipre.

En Portada analizó en Plan de paz en compañía del entonces consejero de Naciones Unidas para Chipre, Álvaro de Soto y mediante gráficos muestró didácticamente el territorio que los turcochipirotas deberían  ceder a los grecochipriotas y las condiciones del futuro acuerdo. Chipre, según ese plan, sería un solo Estado, integrado por dos estados iguales.

Con la entrada de la República de Chipre en la UE las cosas han cambiado poco y turcos y griegos de Chipre siguen sin encontrar una oportunidad que devuelva a la diosa Afrodia su único e indivisible hogar.